During Al-Zayani`s visit to Jerusalem last week, Israel and Bahrain signed an agreement that allows citizens of each country to apply for an online visa for the other country before December 1. Nabil Abu Rudeineh, a senior adviser to President Mahmoud Abbas, read an official statement in which Palestinian leaders rejected the agreement and called it treason against Jerusalem, the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Palestinians.  The Palestinian Authority (PNA) recalled its ambassador from Abu Dhabi.   Palestinian leaders also said that Hamas leader called Ismail Haniyeh Abbas and rejected the agreement, which Reuters called a “rare manifestation of unity.”  On Thursday, heads of state and government from Israel and the United Arab Emirates (United Arab Emirates) will sign an agreement to continue the normalization of relations. Bahrain`s foreign minister has agreed in recent days to sign a similar agreement at the same event, but the agreement between Israel and the United Arab Emirates appears to be much more robust and fraught with consequences. Despite the prevailing hostility towards Israel in the Arab world, the Emiratis bet that the negative reaction to their trilateral declaration with Israel and the United States would be tempered. Since 2010, ongoing conflicts, fuelled by worsening Sunni-Shiite sectarianism and competition between Islamist, monarchist, statistical and jihadist groups, have killed hundreds of thousands of people in the Middle East. These deadly conflicts and their second-rate destabilizing effects have kept resistance against Israel from the top of the agendas of most countries, as evidenced by The Arab opinion polls of Zogby Research. At a ceremony at the White House on September 15, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates signed agreements to establish comprehensive diplomatic, cultural and trade relations with Israel. This would never have been done without Saudi Arabia`s agreement. The Saudis were behind the Arab peace plan that called for Palestinian independence.
Yousef Al Otaiba, the UAE`s ambassador to the United States, issued a statement on 13 August in which he hailed the agreement as a “victory for diplomacy and for the region” and added how it “reduces tensions and creates new energy for positive change”.   Despite the lack of official reaction, the hashtag “Normalization is treason” began after the announcement in trend, especially among young Saudi activists.  On 19 August, Saudi Foreign Minister Fayçal bin Farhan Al Saud said that the agreement could be considered positive, but that his country would not be able to normalize relations until peace with the Palestinians was signed, as part of the Arab peace initiative, we hope.  Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) official Hanan Ashrawi criticized the agreement and wrote on Twitter: “Israel has been rewarded for not openly declaring what it has done illegally and stubbornly to Palestine since the beginning of the occupation.”  Fatah accused the United Arab Emirates of “despising their national, religious and humanitarian duties” towards the Palestinian people, while Hamas declared it a “traitor sting in the back of the Palestinian people”, saying that the agreement was a “free reward” for the “crimes and violations of the Palestinian people”.  Malaysia stated that the agreement was a sovereign right of the United Arab Emirates, but that it would continue to support Israel`s withdrawal from the Palestinian territories.  The Philippine Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement in which it welcomed the agreement and hoped it would contribute to peace and security in the Middle East.  The Government of Oman has publicly supported the agreement (which it described as “historic”).  The Grand Mufti of Oman, Ahmed bin Hamad al-Khalili, indirectly criticized the treaty.
 Ahmed Mulla Talal, spokesman for the Iraqi government, said that Iraq would not interfere in the sovereign affairs of other countries, but that its laws did not allow for the normalization of relations with Israel.  China said it welcomed attempts to reduce hostilities in the MO